[Published by Whitston Publishing
||Notice: This page is created for media, reviewers,
medical personnel, cancer research facilities, hospitals, libraries, institutions,
and other interested persons and/or organizations.
All rights reserved.
|Special thanks to Professors Juergen A.W. Brickman and Matthias Keil of the Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Darmstadt University of Technolgy, Germany, for permission to use this photo in LIVING WITHOUT FEAR: Understanding Cancer and the New Therapies, forthcoming in Spring 2001 from Whitston Publishing Company.|
About the Authors:
Thomas E. Wagner is at the forefront of the rapidly expanding field of molecular and cellular biology and the emerging biotechnology industry. While an undergraduate at Princeton University he was actively involved with research in the structure and function of DNA. He also was a pioneer in the biotechnology industry, having founded three successful biotechnology companies—DNX, Inc., Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc., and Progenitor, Inc. – and served as a member of the Office of Technology Assessment for Biotechnology of the U.S. Congress. After completing his Ph.D. at Northwestern University he joined the faculty at Cornell University College of Medicine and the staff of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. In 1970 he joined the faculty at Ohio University. Dr. Wagner is best known for being the first scientist to introduce permanent functional foreign genes into higher species when he and his research group at Ohio University generated the world's first transgenic animal in 1980. These seminal experiments served as the basis for the establishment of the Ohio University Edison Institute, for which Dr. Wagner served as founding director. He was also Distinguished Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and directed research towards the treatment and solution of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, AIDS, and allied viral infections. He is presently Director of Oncology Research at the Greenville Hospital System Cancer Treatment Center in Greenville, South Carolina, and Distinguished Professor of Molecular Medicine at Clemson University.
Michael Bugeja is a nationally known ethicist and author
of some 18 books, including the acclaimed Living Ethics: Developing
Values in Mass Communication. He is ethics adviser to the President
of Ohio University, on the Editorial Board of the peer review Journal
of College and Character, a founding member of the Institute of Applied
and Professional Ethics, and creator of the award-winning “Your PATH at
Ohio” program, emphasizing personal accountability, trust, and honor.
Dr. Bugeja also is president of Character Education Inc., a company that
conducts ethics presentations and does consulting work for corporations
and educational institutions. Dr. Bugeja is a frequent source about media
and applied ethics, interviewed by such outlets as Fox News, CBS Radio
Network, Newsday, American Journalism Review, and The Chronicle
of Higher Education. His writing has appeared in a variety of
publications, including Harper’s, The Chronicle of Higher Education,
Word & World, Editor & Publisher, Quill, and Journalism
Quarterly. His awards include a National Endowment for the Arts fellowship,
a National Endowment for the Humanities grant, and an Ohio Arts Council
fellowship, among others. Dr. Bugeja has received several teaching honors,
including an AMOCO Foundation Outstanding Teacher Award and two University
Professor Awards, bestowed by student bodies of major public institutions.
He holds a doctorate in English from Oklahoma State University and a master’s
in mass communication from South Dakota State University. Before entering
academe, he worked as state editor for United Press International. He teaches
ethics and writing at the prestigious E.W. Scripps School of Journalism,
Drs. Wagner and Bugeja are available for interviews about the science
and ethics of new cancer treatments. To arrange a telephone or email interview,
please email Michael O. Laddin, president,
Whitston Publishing Company, or telephone him at (518) 452-1900.
This is a wellness book about cancer. A world-renowned geneticist has teamed with a distinguished ethicist to compose a work that explains the new therapies in common language and provides envisioning exercises to enhance attitude.
There are four distinct segments: those with or at risk for cancer, the health-conscious, and their loved ones. The first two segments—those with or at risk for cancer—number 22 million in this country alone. From cover to last page, each segment is addressed.
Although the four segments of the audience have a wide range of demographics and psychographics, they share one common bond: they fear cancer. Thus, the theme of Living Without Fear is “eradicating fear.”
None at present. (See foreword below.) The closest competitor, by concept, is Steven Rosenberg’s The Transformed Cell: Unlocking the Mysteries of Cancer (Putnam, 1992). Living Without Fear differs from Rosenberg’s work in these ways:
1. Cutting-edge information based on dramatic discoveries between 1992-2000.
2. An ethics component that enhances wellness.
3. Envisioning exercises at the end of each chapter to improve attitude.
4. Motivational style with “Inspiration Point” inserts embedded in the text. (See sample below.)
Imagine if a person could somehow slice a fish in two, to create not two halves of one fish but two identical-twin fish. That would be a messiah-like miracle, of course. But such miracles occur routinely at the cellular level.
1. Written as wellness rather than science book.
Benefit: Appeals to mass audience.
2. Explains new cancer therapies.
Benefit: Provides cutting-edge information unavailable elsewhere.
3. Contains ethics component.
Benefit: Enhances theme of abating fear associated with cancer.
4. Contains envisioning exercises.
Benefits: Helps imagine cancer at the cellular level. Enhances wellness.
5. Showcases vital information in textboxes.
Benefit: Enhances motivational style.
6. Showcases vital information in textboxes.
Benefit: Enhances motivational style.
7. Contains scientific and professional photographs and art.
Benefit: Enhances clarity and visualization techniques.
8. Contains glossary and index.
Benefit: Enhances clarity.
Two newsworthy events occurred while the authors
of Living Without Fear were busy researching data for this book.
One was a local speech by a famous orator and politician. The other was
breaking news in both cancer and the publishing world. Geneticist Thomas
Wagner and ethicist Michael Bugeja calmly heeded these happenings and persevered,
as they had been doing, for the better part of one year when both decided
to halt their individual research projects and collaborate on a work that
would lessen fear of cancer and restore hope in millions worldwide.
The first news event featured an ambassador of hope, the Rev. Jesse Jackson. The famed orator was visiting Ohio University where both Drs. Wagner and Bugeja were teaching at the time. (Dr. Wagner has since become director of oncology research at the Greenville Hospital System Cancer Treatment Center in Greenville, South Carolina, and distinguished professor of molecular medicine at Clemson University.) That night, in his typical passionate way, Jesse Jackson addressed thousands of people attending his speech in the domed basketball stadium on campus. The Rev. Jackson asked members of the audience to stand up if they had cancer. Several dozen did. Then he asked those to stand who had family members stricken with breast and other cancers. More and more rose from their seats. Finally he asked all those present to stand if cancer had touched their lives in a substantial way. Practically everyone was standing.
Sadly, for that reason, practically everyone is a potential reader of Living Without Fear. Throughout this book Thomas Wagner and Michael Bugeja were careful to identify those readers: people with or at risk for cancer, the health conscious, and their loved ones. The authors know that dozens of cancer books have been published in recent years but none embracing all segments of the cancer saga. A full year earlier, Drs. Wagner and Bugeja also knew that only a few rather scientific works focused on the molecular breakthroughs and genetic treatments that were being reported in journals or being tested in research trials. Dr. Wagner, one of the world’s leading molecular geneticists, was in possession of cutting-edge information. His colleague, Michael Bugeja, was an award-winning writer, teacher, and ethicist who had a science and media background and could translate the new therapies into prose that everyone could understand. So geneticist and ethicist stopped their own research projects and went to work on what they knew would be an informative book with one goal: to eradicate fear associated with cancer and, thereby, renew hope.
Soon after Jesse Jackson spoke to the audience at Ohio University, another news story erupted nationwide, based on too-optimistic reports that a new cancer therapy might defeat the disease once and for all. The therapy was angiogenesis inhibition—the blocking the formation of blood vessels feeding a cancerous tumor—which Thomas Wagner knew and wrote about in Living Without Fear, completed that very day. Michael Bugeja, a former wire service bureau chief, questioned the developing story because he and Dr. Wagner knew the procedure had not yet undergone extensive clinical trials. True, angiogenesis inhibition looked and still looks promising, but few journalists knew what Dr. Bugeja did about cancer research. His colleague Thomas Wagner had been curing tumors in mice for years via a host of different therapies, although not specifically via tumor angiogenesis. Both authors knew that shrinking or eradicating tumors in mice is one thing; doing so in humans, another. But the overoptimistic reports about the angiogenesis process resulted in a deluge of media coverage on cancer and the new therapies. News magazines dedicated cover stories to cancer research. Newspapers went into depth about treatment. So did network TV. All the while, clinical trials—an important component of accountable science—continued, with no immediate news about instant cancer cures. Without such cures, the media lost interest momentarily in cancer research.
This book does not offer cures. If it did, the authors would be guilty of raising false hope in millions of cancer patients, survivors, and their families. Yet the new therapies are covered here in detail, including angiogenesis inhibition. The book does have specific goals which, if understood, can inform cancer patients and loved ones so that they can acquire quality treatment. Moreover, throughout the book, the authors take pains to hammer home a common theme: overcoming fear. To help you in that endeavor, Michael Bugeja has developed a sequence of exercises to envision cancer at the molecular level and to enhance your consciousness (and confidence) at the creative level. These powerful exercises call on readers not only to imagine the molecular and cellular landscape but also to balance their well-being via ethics and art. As such the authors hope to convey to readers a wellness philosophy based on a few universal truths in which both authors believe deeply.
Thomas Wagner and Michael Bugeja share a unique vision. They want to convey that to you at a critical time in your life and in society, which continues to contend with health care issues. Dr. Wagner believes that human beings can solve any problem on earth as long as they take the time to understand the problem. Dr. Bugeja believes that human beings are distinct from animals because we can make anything we envision. Those two attitudes have joined in what the authors hope is a work that will inspire and inform you and enlist you and your loved ones in the potentially winnable war against cancer.
Thomas Wagner, Greer, S.C Michael Bugeja, Athens, Ohio
Cancer and the Wellness Process
Knowledge Lessens Fear
Mind and Medicine
Enhancing the Healing Process
Uniting Body and Mind
What You Can Do Now
The Life Process and Origins of Cancer
The Origins of Life
The Machinery of Life
Mechanics and Messengers
The Origins of Cancer
Taking Control of the Process
Mutants and Gatekeepers
The Language of Life
The Warehouse of Life
Mutants and Messengers
Implications of Molecular Errors
Unnatural Born Mutants
The Twisted Path from Pre-Cancer to Cancer
Traveling the Cellular Landscape
The Cellular Road to Cancer
A Likely Chain of Events
The Role of the Immune System
The Final Step to Cancer
A Moment of Reflection
Lessons from the AIDS Virus
Taming a Deadly Epidemic
A Three-Pronged Attack
Focusing on the Process
The Future of Cancer Treatment
Images of Traditional Treatment
Understanding Radiation Treatment
Gene Therapy: A Great Yet Limited Hope
Basics of Gene Therapy
An Exciting, New Approach
An Overview of Therapies
Overcoming the Limitations
A New Class of Drugs
Immunotherapy: Helping the Body Heal Itself
The War of the Cells
The Normal Immune Response
A Formidable Foe
The Second Most Complex System
The New Genetic Vaccines
The Special Case of Leukemia
The New Cancer Chemotherapy
Other Chemopreventative Drugs
Blockading the Tumor
Hope for Breast and Prostate Cancers
Engineering the End of Cancer
Adenoma (pronounced “ADD-ee-NOME-ah”): a benign tumor in a secretory gland like the intestine.
Adenoviruses (pronounced “ADD-no-VIGH-rus-es”): a virus typically found in mild respiratory infections.
Angiogenesis (pronounced “AN-jee-oh-JEN-ah-sis”): the process by which new blood vessels emerge from existing blood vessels.
APC: the “gatekeeper of the intestinal wall and a gene that produces a vital protein, which when mutated, can lead to uncontrolled cell growth in the colorectal region.
ATP: a simple Metabolite that provides phosphates to Cyclin dependent Kinases that stimulate the cell cycle and a model for small-molecule “decoys” that would deprive CDKs of phosphates.
Chromosomal Translocation: breakage and errant reconnection of chromosomal fragments, causing mutations and sometimes initiating the cancer process.
COX-2: a vital protein and cell-death inhibitor associated with colorectal cancer and which, when found in overabundance, causes pre-cancerous conditions.
Cyclin (pronounced “SIGH-klin”): a “vitamin” protein that binds with the dependent “mechanic” protein, otherwise known as Cyclin Dependent Kinace (CDK), to help it turn on action molecules of the cell cycle.
Cyclin D: the gatekeeper known as “the driver,” perhaps the most important gatekeeper with respect to the onset of cancer, because it prompts cell division.
Cytokines (pronounced “SITE-oh-kines”): natural molecules that speed the maturation of stem cells and intermediate cells, again advancing them to their most useful stage (when treating Leukemia), when they can rebuild the blood system most effectively.
Dendritic (pronounced “den-DRIT-ick”): “super spy” cells of the immune system, which activate two other vital cells of the body’s defensive response: killer and helper cells.
DNA: an extremely long and thin molecule, shaped as a double helix, which transfers genetic characteristics to all life forms.
E2F: the “letter-carrier” protein that delivers messages to activate genes that direct production of the “machine” proteins that replicate cells.
Endostatin (pronounced “END-oh-STAT-in”): molecular fragments that stop endothelial cells from forming vascular structures.
Endothelial (pronounced “END-oh-THEEL-ee-all”): cells that form blood vessels.
Extra-Cellular Matrix Proteins: the “stuff” that coats the outer surface of many cells, including those of our blood vessels, and which bind to Integrin molecules on the surface of embryonic Endothelial cells, weaving them into tubular sheets. Extra-cellular matrix proteins also are associated with tumor Angiogenesis (or the starving of blood supply from a tumor).
Genome (pronounced “GEE-nome”): all the inheritable traits of a living creature.
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (pronounced “GRAN-yoo-LOW-site MACK-re-fage”) or GMCSF: a signaling protein that activates spy cells of the immune system, bolstering the body’s defensive army of white blood cells.
Homeostasis (pronounced “HOEM-ee-oh-STAY-sis”): internal stability, or the state of tissues that maintain constant cell numbers by controlling both the rate of cell cycling and the rate of programmed cell death.
Hyperplasia (pronounced “HIGH-per-PLAY-she-ah”): a non-malignant tumor resulting from the over-production of cells.
Integrin: a protein that migrates to the outer surface of Endothelial cells, stimulating the self-assembly of tubes, and associated with tumor Angiogenesis (or the starving of blood supply from a tumor).
Interleukin 2 (pronounced “IN-ter-LUKE-in”) or IL-2: a signaling protein that activates killer cells of the immune system.
Kinase (pronounced “KAI-nace”): an enzyme that turns on action proteins of the cell cycle, initiating that chemical reaction by adding a phosphate element to amino acids.
Lymph: the pale fluid associated with the immune system, which bathes bodily tissues and carries off bacteria, viruses, and other particles to the Nodes.
Lymphocytes (pronounced “LIMPH-oh-SITES”): cells associated with the immune system that proliferate and attack foreign particles carried by Lymph to the Nodes.
Metabolite (pronounced “met-AB-oh-lite”): cellular food.
MF-tricyclic (pronounced “try-SIGH-klick”): a molecule mistaken by COX-2 as a Metabolite and used as a decoy in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Mitochondria (pronounced “MITE-oh-CON-dree-ah”): the energy-generating bodies within a cell.
Mutagen (pronounced “MYOOT-a-jens”): a substance or agent, such as found in tobacco smoke, known to cause mutations (cellular or genetic damage).
Nodes: a complex network of microscopic “mesh,” which impedes the passage of foreign objects carried by Lymph of the immune system.
Oncogene (pronounced “ONK-oh-GENE”): a cancer-related gene.
p16: one of the four gatekeepers that monitors cell division, known by its atomic weight of 16000.
p53: one of the four gatekeepers that suppresses cell division, known by its atomic weight of 53000.
Phosphorylate (pronounced “foss-FOR-ah-LATE”): or spraying phosphates. See Kinace.
Polymer (pronounced “POLY-mer”): a molecular compound used in artificial products like polystyrene and polyester and also found in natural substances, including diamonds and DNA.
Protease (pronounced “PRO-tee-ase”): any enzyme that can chop other proteins into fragments.
Protease Inhibitor: a drug that inhibits Protease (used to inhibit a specific protease in the treatment of HIV disease).
RAS: the protein product of an Oncogene, associated with colorectal cancer, directly connected to the cell cycle, and which acts as a “carrier pigeon” by dropping messages spawning the powerful gatekeeper “driver,” Cyclin D.
Retinoblastoma (pronounced “re-tin-oh-blas-TOM-a) or RB protein: one of the four gatekeeper, called the “guard,” which prevents rampant cell division by firmly binding E2F, preventing it from delivering its messages to prompt cell division.
Proteosomes (pronounced “PRO-tee-oh-sohms”): the protein recycling units of the cell that break proteins into small fragments.
Totipotent: (pronounced toe-tee-POE-tent) a cell that has the potential to become any cell in the body.
Vasculogenesis (pronounced VAS-cue-loh-JEN-ah-sis”): Similar to Angiogenesis, the rapid and prolific development of blood vessels during some of the earliest phases of an embryo.
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 119
action proteins, 36, 39, 66, 86, 88, 95, 201, 220
adenomas, 74, 89, 90-92, 122, 202, 217
adenoviruses, 160, 167
AIDS, 2, 6, 13, 113, 115-122, 124, 126, 131, 160, 178
Albert Einstein, 54, 71
American Cancer Society, 25, 26, 27, 178
amino acids, 37, 63, 64, 65, 99, 220
angiogenesis, 10, 11, 204-208, 217, 219, 220, 223
angiogenesis inhibition, 10-11
antigens, 181-182, 184
APC, 90-93, 199, 217
ATP, 201, 217
Bob Woodward, 113
bone marrow transplantation, 188, 190
Boston Globe, 131-132
breast cancer, 8, 208
Buckminster Fuller, 99
Carl Bernstein, 113
Carl Sagan, 133, 136, 139, 148
CAT scan, 124
CDK. See cyclin dependent kinases
CDK2, 39-40, 51
CDKs, 38-39, 44, 201, 217
cellular proliferation, 34-35, 203, 212
Charles Darwin, 15
chemotherapeutic drugs, 8, 201, 144-145, 163, 189, 201, 210
chemotherapy, 7-8, 13, 24, 121, 125, 136-138, 143-145, 155, 157, 161, 163-164, 166, 187-190, 196-197, 200, 202, 204
Christian de Duve, 151
chromosomal translocation, 73, 78, 84, 217
colorectal cancer, 88, 199
Columbia Broadcasting Company, 176
combined action, 38, 180
continuous tublar structure, 207
Cosmos. See Carl Sagan
COX-2, 90-92, 199-200, 218, 221
Culture and Anarchy. See Matthew Arnold
cyclin, 72, 217-218, 222
cyclin A, 39
cyclin dependent kinases, 2, 38-39, 201
cyclin E, 39
cyclins, 38-40, 44
cytokines, 189-190, 218
David Felten, 16
David Ho, 119, 124
dendritic spy cells, 182
Dionysius Longinus, 104
DNA, 2, 6, 26, 39, 56-71, 85-87, 93, 95, 98, 105, 107, 121-122, 125, 141-145, 156-162, 166, 168, 210-212, 218, 222
Duke University Medical Center, 170
E2F, 38-41, 67-68, 72, 218, 222
Earvin “Magic” Johnson, 119, 124
Edward Jenner, 175
embryonic cells, 34
endothelial cells, 206, 207, 208, 219-220
esophageal carcinomas, 74
extra-cellular matrix proteins, 219
Food and Drug Administration, 177
Frank Drake, 136
Frank Lloyd Wright, 99
free radicals, 26
gene therapy, 24, 125, 153-154, 156, 158, 160-164, 166-167, 169, 174, 178-179, 184-186, 191
George M. Mahawinney, 176
Gerald Ford, 113
GMCSF. See granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor.
granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, 187
Greenville Hospital System Cancer Treatment Center, 2, 9
Guillain-Barre syndrome, 115
H.G. Wells, 175-176, 192, 197
Hale-Bopp comet, 135
Harold Koenig, 170
Heaven’s Gate, 135
Herpes, 163, 164, 165
HIV, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 160, 222
homeostasis, 42, 89, 219
hybrid cells. See dentritomas
hyperplasia, 85, 87-89, 91, 96, 220
immune system, 16, 24-25, 27, 96-100, 107, 116-117, 125, 163, 166, 175-176, 178-179, 181-185, 187, 189, 190-191, 194-195, 218-221
immunotherapy, 24, 125, 178, 181, 187, 190-191
Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, 112
integrin, 206-207, 219-220
Interleukin, 186, 220
ionizing radiation, 19, 138, 140, 142
Janet Knott, 131
Jesse Jackson, 9-10
Joseph Campbell, 81, 103
Juergen A.W. Brickman, 112
kinase, 37, 39, 41, 212, 220
Kitty Hawk, 56
Lenore Gelb, 177
Leukemia, 7, 187, 218
lymphocytes, 116, 220
Lyndhurst, New Jersey, 81
Madame Curie, 133, 146
Magnetic Resonance imagery, 124
matrix proteins, 206-207, 219
Matthew Arnold, 175, 192
Matthias Keil, 112
Max Planck, 151, 154, 169
meditation, 16, 30
metabolite, 217, 220-221
MF-tricyclic, 200, 221
Michael Bugeja, 1, 2, 9-12, 18, 21, 28-29, 37, 62, 81, 88, 102, 113-115, 133, 151-152, 192, 210
mitochondria, 156, 221
Mountaineering in Scotland. See W.H. Murray
mutation, 21, 25-26, 54, 66, 68-74, 77, 79, 84-94, 96, 98, 100-101, 103, 107, 116-119, 121-123, 125, 142-143, 146, 155, 158, 161, 163, 165, 167-168, 178-179, 184-185, 199, 202, 204, 210, 217, 221
National Cancer Institute, 23
New York City, 81
Newark, New Jersey, 82
Occam's Razor. See William of Occam.
Occidental culture, 104
oncogenes, 41, 92, 93, 94, 212, 221- 222
p16, 42, 74, 221
p53, 42, 74, 93, 95, 98, 112, 142-144, 146, 161-162, 166-167, 210, 221
Philadelphia Inquirer, 176
phosphorylate, 37, 221
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 33, 44
polymer, 58, 59, 65, 69, 99, 141, 211, 222
polyps, 25, 89-91, 122, 199, 200, 202
Princeton, 2, 152, 153
principal kinases, 40
prostate cancer, 8, 208
protease, 119, 222
protease inhibitor, 222
proteosomes, 99, 222
radiation therapy, 125, 136, 140, 142-144, 190
RAS, 92-93, 202, 222
retinoblastoma, 40-41, 74, 222
Richard Nixon, 113
Salem, Massachusetts, 76
Sante Fe Institute for Medicine and Prayer, 16
Science News, 170
Shakespeare, 12, 15-16, 126
Sir Francis Bacon, 12
squamous cell carcinomas, 74
St. Alexis Hospital, 152
Star Trek, 118
Steven A. Rosenberg, 196
swine flu vaccine, 114, 115
The War of the Worlds. See H.G. Wells.
Thomas Wagner, 9-12, 18, 21, 29, 36, 60, 62, 77, 85, 88, 103, 116, 121, 124, 133, 138, 151-153, 156, 158, 178, 192, 210-212
Time Magazine, 16
Tony Rippo, 16
totipotent cells, 34, 43, 222
tumor angiogenesis. See angiogenesis inhibition
ultraviolet light, 71, 140
Undiscovered Scotland. See W.H. Murray
United Press International, 3, 113, 115
vasculogenesis, 206, 223
Viet Nam War Memorial, 131
Vikings, 197, 200
Vital Dust. See Christian de Duve
W. H. Murray, 113
Washington Post, 113
Washington, D.C., 131
white blood cell, 180, 183
William Hutchinson Murray. See W.H. Murray.
William of Occam, 157